Choropleth

Choropleth [ˈkɔːrəˌplɛθ] : A map with geographical areas colored in relation to a data variable.

It is used to display patterns or variation of the variable in different districts of a region. For example it’s popular to show different voting behaviour between the electoral districts of a country.

The type of data determines what color scale to pick for the map. Sequential data is often displayed with a color gradient from light to dark. Maps showing diverging data, for example the derivation from a specific comparative value, get a scale with two color gradients and a fixed color for the comparative value. If your data is qualitative, every category gets its own individual color in the map. A great tool to find a good color scale matching your data is colorbrewer.

Comma-separated values

Comma-separated values [ˈkɑː.məˈsep·əˌreɪted ˈvæl·juz]: a file format for storing tabular data, in which cells are seperated by commas.

The punctuation is not standardized though, which is why you might also come across files in which cells are seperated by semicolons or varying decimal punctuation like periods or commas. There are also some special forms that often end with .csv. For example tab-seperated or space-sperated values. Many programs allow you to specify the type of seperator, decimal point etc.

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Command Line Interface

Command Line Interface [kəˈmænd ˈlaɪn ˈɪntɚˌfeɪs]: A command-line interface (short CLI) is a way to interact with a program not by clicking with a mouse on icons, but by typing predefined commands.
Casual users prefer GUIs (graphical user interfaces) because you have to learn the commands for every program you want to use.
Advanced users often prefer CLIs because it supports a more powerful way to interact and automate user interaction.
There are many more programs who only have a CLIs because GUIs need more resources to develop and maintain. Before the 1970s using a computer terminal with commands was the primary mean of interaction.

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