Programming language

Programming language [ˈproʊ.ɡræm.ɪŋ ˈlæŋ.ɡwɪdʒ]: a coded language to write instructions a computer can understand and execute.

The most basic programming language is the binary machine language the computer interprets without any translator. It is referred as a low-level language and you may call it the native language of a computer.

All other programming languages, like JavaScript, HTML, R or Python, are high-level languages with fixed syntaxes (forms) and semantics (meanings). They are exectuted slower than the machine language, because they need a translator or compiler program so the computer knows what to do. But, they make things easier for the programmer, as they reduce complexe instructions in short commands and functions.